COVID resources banner WCA2021 baner logo 2
English Arabic Chinese (Simplified) French German Spanish

Refine Your Search

Category: Basic Sciences

Posted in: ATOTW > Basic Sciences 2020 Language: english

From the X-ray machine in the rural clinic to the brachytherapy suite in the specialist cancer centre, sources of ionising radiation are ever more ubiquitous. This article explores the basic science of ionising radiation, the risks it poses to the anaesthetists and other healthcare providers and emphasizes on how such risks can be ameliorated.

Posted in: ATOTW > Basic Sciences 2020 Language: english

This tutorial explores the basic science and physiology of the endogenous hormone vasopressin, and the uses of vasopressin and its synthetic analogues in modern medical practice.

Posted in: ATOTW > Basic Sciences 2020 Language: portuguese

Este tutorial investigará inicialmente a as propriedades farmacodinâmicas e farmacocinéticas da clonidina. Depois, o artigo vai abranger o uso clínico da clonidina na prática anestésica, incluindo seu uso na sedação, analgesia, adjuvante aos anestésicos locais em bloqueios regionais e outros usos relevantes.

Posted in: UIA > Basic Sciences 2020 Language: english

Tranexamic acid significantly reduces peri-operative blood loss in a wide variety of surgical specialties and improves survival in haemorrhage from trauma and birth. In cardiac patients it carries a risk of seizures, especially with higher doses, and theoretically may predispose to thromboembolic disease but clinically relatively few side effects are observed. It is highly cost-effective and requires minimal training to administer. As such the World Health Organisation now include it on the essential medicines list. Future research to clarify dosing regimens, especially in the cardiac and paediatric populations, as well as usage in other surgical disciplines and intracranial haemorrhage is expected.

Posted in: UIA > Basic Sciences > Pharmacology 2020 Language: english

Ketamine is a versatile drug with a unique profile that allows it to be successfully used for a multitude of situations worldwide. Its variable dosing means it can be used both as an induction agent with a good haemodynamic profile or in lower doses as a reliable sedative or analgesic drug. It has a vital role in prehospital and emergency medicine. As an adjunct during routine anaesthesia it can help reduce opioid requirements postoperatively. Its use in critical care includes sedation and management of refractory asthma; however, further research is required to elucidate its role in trauma and head injury patients. In the developing world, it is a vital and highly valued drug that allows performance of interventions and operations that may otherwise prove impossible, especially when resources are limited. Ketamine still suffers from traditional stigma from doctors and the public alike and it is often neglected due to concerns about psychological side effects. Increased availability of preparations of pure S-(þ)-isomer ketamine may help increase its popularity.

Posted in: ATOTW > Basic Sciences 2019 Language: english

This tutorial will initially look at the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetic properties of clonidine. The article will then cover the clinical use of clonidine in anaesthetic practice including its use in sedation, analgesia, adjunct to local anaesthetics in regional blocks and other relevant uses.

Posted in: ATOTW > Basic Sciences 2019 Language: french

This tutorial reviews the clinical uses of tranexamic acid, its mechanism of action and pharmacokinetics, contraindications and side effects.

Posted in: ATOTW > Basic Sciences 2019 Language: portuguese

Este tutorial revisa os usos clínicos do ácido tranexâmico, seu mecanismo de ação e farmacocinética, contraindicações e efeitos colaterais.

Posted in: ATOTW > Basic Sciences 2019 Language: portuguese

Os anti-inflamatórios não-esteroidais são medicamentos analgésicos simples e efetivos com os quais todos os anestesistas devem estar familiarizados. Embora altamente efetivos, eles têm um modo de ação complexo e muitos efeitos colaterais e interações medicamentosas possíveis. É vital conhecer a farmacologia básica ao se prescrever esses medicamentos, a fim de evitar quaisquer complicações.

Posted in: ATOTW > Basic Sciences 2019 Language: english

This tutorial reviews the clinical uses of tranexamic acid, its mechanism of action and pharmacokinetics, contraindications and side effects.

Posted in: ATOTW > Basic Sciences 2019 Language: english

Non steroidal inflammatory drugs are an effective simple analgesic medication that all anaesthetists should be familiar with. Although highly effective they have a complex mode of action and many possible side effects and drug interactions. It is vital to know the basic pharmacology when prescribing these medications to avoid any complications.

Posted in: ATOTW > Basic Sciences 2018 Language: chinese

吸入气体加湿对于麻醉安全管理十分重要。这部分内容主要是加湿的基本知识,湿度的测定,麻醉临床操作中加湿的意义。

Posted in: ATOTW > Basic Sciences & General Topics 2018 Language: portuguese

A angiografia coronária é cada vez mais realizada pré-operatóriamente para investigar a presença de doença arterial coronariana. Como médicos perioperatórios, precisamos de uma compreensão básica da angiografia coronária e da terminologia utilizada. Este tutorial tem como objetivo dar uma visão geral da anatomia coronariana e fornecer um conhecimento útil da angiografia coronária.

Posted in: ATOTW > Basic Sciences 2017 Language: spanish

La humidificación de los gases inspirados es vital para la práctica anestésica segura. Este artículo se enfoca en la ciencia básica de la humidificación, su medición y relevancia en la práctica clínica.

Posted in: ATOTW > Basic Sciences & General Topics 2017 Language: chinese

冠状动脉造影术越来越多地在术前进行,检查是否有冠状动脉疾病的存在。作为围术期医生,我们需要对冠状动脉造影和常用术语有所理解。本教程的目的是概述冠状动脉解剖,并提供冠状动脉造影的操作知识。

Posted in: ATOTW > Basic Sciences 2017 Language: english

Humidification of inspired gases is vital for the safe practice of anesthesia. This article focuses on the basic science of humidification, its measurement and its relevance in anaesthesia clinical practice.

Posted in: ATOTW > Basic Sciences & General Topics 2017 Language: english

Coronary angiography is increasingly performed pre-operatively to investigate for the presence of coronary artery disease. As peri-operative physicians, we need a basic understanding of coronary angiography and terminology used. This tutorial aims to give an overview of coronary anatomy and provide a working knowledge of coronary angiography.

Posted in: UIA > Intensive Care Medicine & Basic Sciences 2017 Language: english

Appropriate management of hyponatraemia is often challenging because of both numerous pathophysiological mechanisms and multiple underlying pathological conditions. After revising the normal control of sodium balance this article will review the causes, classification, diagnosis and management of hyponatraemia. An algorithm for investigations and treatment is provided at the end of this article. Originally published as Anaesthesia Tutorial of the Week #314, 2 April 2015, edited by William English.

Posted in: UIA > Pain & Basic Sciences 2017 Language: english

Knowledge of the pharmacological differences between opioids can be applied to select the appropriate drug for the relevant clinical setting and minimise the impact of side-effects. Over the last 20 years more information regarding the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics in terms of opioid receptor dimers and oligomers, second messenger system effects and genotyping has come to light. Originally published as Anaesthesia Tutorial of the Week #277, 3 December 2012

瑞芬太尼因其起效及代谢迅速并且与其他全麻药物具有协同作用的特点,而成为麻醉和重症监护领域应用广泛的理想的镇痛镇静药物。该教程主要介绍了瑞芬太尼药理学特点、靶控输注模型及其临床应用于全身麻醉、分娩镇痛、清醒插管及ICU镇痛镇静的用药方案。

Las aplicaciones del remifentanilo para la anestesia y los cuidados intensivos se están expandiendo rápidamente. En este tutorial discutimos estas aplicaciones y las propiedades del remifentanilo que lo hacen tan versátil. También se cubren las consideraciones para el uso seguro del remifentanilo, así como el modelo Minto para las infusiones controladas objetivo.

Le remifentanil est de plus en plus utilisé en anesthésie et aux soins intensifs. Dans cet article, on passe en revue cette utilisation et les propriétés du rémifentanil qui en font un médicament si flexible. On trouve aussi les considérations pour l’usage sécuritaire du rémifentanil et le modèle de Minto pour l’anesthésie intraveineuse à objectif de concentration.

The applications of remifentanil for anaesthesia and intensive care medicine are rapidly expanding. In this tutorial we discuss these applications and the properties of remifentanil that make it so versatile. Considerations for the safe use of remifentanil are also covered as well as the Minto model for target controlled infusions.

Posted in: ATOTW > Basic Sciences 2016 Language: spanish

¿Puede usted decir cual es el sistema respiratorio presentado en este diagrama? En este tutorial nosotros describimos las características importantes de los circuitos respiratorios Mapleson y circular relevantes a la práctica anestésica. Nosotros explicamos los requerimientos del flujo de gases frescos para prevenir re-inhalación, la posición de los componentes individuales del circuito así como los cambios que ocurren durante la ventilación espontánea y controlada. Solo haga clic en el link para leer el tutorial completo.

Posted in: ATOTW > Basic Sciences 2016 Language: spanish

El sugammadex es un agente único de reversión del bloqueo neuromuscular amino esteroideo-inducido. Es el primer agente de su clase.