Laryngospasm is a well-known entity occurring during the perioperative period, most commonly during intubation or extubation. Clinical signs are the consequence of patient effort to breath against a closed glottis.
Risk factors can be related to patient, surgery or anesthesia. They should be managed pre-operatively in order to prevent this occurrence, together with preventative drugs such as iv (intravenous) lidocaine and magnesium sulphate, iv propofol induction instead of the inhalational route in children and laryngeal aspiration before extubation.
Prompt diagnosis and management is the key to success and includes Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) with 100% oxygen, manual maneuvers (subluxation of the temporomandibular joint and Larson’s maneuver), increasing depth of anesthesia and muscle relaxation. If these measures do not succeed, forced orotracheal intubation or even cricothyroidectomy/tracheostomy are the emergency steps